Contempory and modern history

After the French Revolution (1789), the Basque provinces lying to the north of the Pyrenees were abolished and substituted by departments (90 throughout the Republic).

Since then, the three provinces which historically form part of the North Basque Country (Labourd, Lower Navarre and Soule or Zuberoa) have formed part, together with Bearne, of department number 64.


The Carlist Wars were fought in the South Basque Country throughout the XIX century. This was when the fueros here were lost. The monarchy succeeded the Carlist Wars, the Spanish Republic and the Civil War.

After the death of the dictator Franco, there came the so-called Democratic Transition in the Spanish State, which gave rise to a number of political changes in the South Basque Country.

En 1981 the Basque Government was created, on Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa approving the Gernika Statute of Autonomy.

Navarre was destined to have its own government and parliament.

The Basques of the diaspora, for their part, continue to have close links with the Basque Country.

The number of Basques or descendants of Basque in the diaspora  (10 million) is much greater than the number of inhabitants of the Basque Country.