The first known inhabitants of the Basque Country date from the Lower Palaeolithic, approximately 200,000 years ago :


Some Palaeolithic sites in the Basque Country:
* The cave at Ekain
* The cave at Amalda (Zestoa)
* The grotto of Benta Laperra (Karrantza)
* The grottoes of Isturitze
* The caves at Santimamiñe

As well as: Axlor in Bizkaia, Lezetxiki in Gipuzkoa, Aitzabal in Araba, the Urbasa sites in Navarre, Olha in Lapurdi, Gatzarria in Zuberoa.

And a few more which correspond to the Neolithic era and to the Iron or Bronze Ages : dolmens, cromlechs and the cemeteries and prehistoric settlements of the Basque Country.